Difference between revisions of "Serprog/Arduino flasher"

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(Pictures (With the 5V SPI levels issue))
(Alternative: Shield with SPI and LPC/FWH for 5V Arduinos: fix branch url)
 
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<div class="boilerplate" style="background-color: red; margin: 2em 0 0 0; padding: 0 10px 0 10px; border: 1px dotted #aaa;">'''WARNING,if you don't add the resistors, the SPI levels are at 5V, while I tried it with 3.3V chip and that it worked(but DIO was at 4.3v which was over the maximum of 4v, during all the time that the chip was connected to the programmer), it may not work for you and break the chip...'''</div>
+
<div class="boilerplate" style="background-color: red; margin: 2em 0 0 0; padding: 0 10px 0 10px; border: 1px dotted #aaa;">'''WARNING, make sure that the Arduino SPI voltages and the flash chip voltages matches: Without any extra resistors or level shifter, the Arduino Uno and Duemillanove SPI pins are at 5V, while most chips operate at 3.3v.'''</div>
== The flasher (Hardware) ==
+
== Hardware basics ==
This flasher require the following hardware parts:
+
You'll need to have:
* An arduino uno or an arduino Duemilanove(way faster) and its usb cable
+
* a supported Arduino, these are
* some wires(optionally some connectors to solder on(for easier plugin and more reliability)
+
** any based on the ATmega328 (/168/88 will work with small changes too), like the Arduino Uno R3.
* <s>a 10k resistor</s>
+
** Arduino Mega or Mega2560, but notice that the software has a different branch for them.
* 3 x 10k resistors (for the 3.3v version)
+
* a way to convert the 5V logic levels to 3.3V (except if 3.3V arduino, these are rarer)
* 3 x 15k resistors (for the 3.3v version)
+
* a 3.3V SPI flash chip that is supported by flashrom
* A flash chip with the following characteristics:
 
** supported by flashrom
 
** SPI
 
** 3.3v or 5v(the arduino has a 3.3v and a 5v output, only 3.3v was tested...)
 
  
=== Pictures (With the 5V SPI levels issue) ===
+
Notes:
<gallery caption="Pictures " widths="250px" heights="250px" perrow="4">
+
* The FTDI based usb-serial converters are the fastest.
File:Serprog_0001.jpeg
+
* 1.8V conversion isnt covered here, yet.
File:Serprog_0002.jpeg
+
 
File:Serprog_0003.jpeg
+
There are some simple schematics included here ([https://github.com/flashrom/wiki-arduino-spi-example-schematics source]).
File:Serprog_0004.jpeg
+
The idea is that you pick one version from each part 1 through 3,
File:Serprog_0005.jpeg
+
and connect the pin/net names.
File:Serprog_0006.jpeg
+
 
File:Serduino_laptop.jpeg| Because of the long cables flashrom had to retry once before reflashing the BIOS but at the end it worked. So don't use cables that are that long...
+
=== Part 1: The Arduino ===
File:W1qtO.jpg| Setup by Sebastian Parborg (DarkDefender)
+
ATmega328 based ones:
File:Arduino_topview_noresistor.jpeg| It now seem to also work without resistor...
+
 
File:Serduino fritzing.jpg| [[File:Serduino.fzz.zip]]
+
[[File:P1v1_arduino328.png]]
</gallery>
+
 
 +
For the Arduino Megas:
 +
 
 +
[[File:P1v2_arduino1280.png]]
 +
 
 +
=== Part 2: Level translation ===
 +
There are a few options here, ranging from the simple resistors (v1) to a buffer chip (v3).
 +
 
 +
One thing to remember about the resistor dividers is that they're not strong enough
 +
to do [[ISP]].
 +
 
 +
Here's the simple resistors:
 +
 
 +
[[File:P2v1_resdivider.png]]
 +
 
 +
The part count for the resistor divider is 6 resistors of 2 types or 9 of one type.
 +
 
 +
Here's one with 5 resistors, the downside is that you'll need to modify the
 +
firmware a little:
 +
 
 +
[[File:P2v2_oc_cs.png]]
 +
 
 +
The 3rd version is using the DIP16 HEF4050 buffer chip:
 +
 
 +
[[File:P2v3_buffer4050.png]]
 +
 
 +
=== Part 3: The SPI Flash chip ===
 +
The DIL-8 and SOIC-8 versions connect like this:
  
== Building (With the 5V SPI levels issue) ==
+
[[File:P3v1_dil8_so8_spi.png]]
  
Left pins of the BIOS chip:
+
For the SMD SOIC-16 chips the pinout is:
--------------------------------------------------------
 
[pin1 of the bios chip] /CS<->10k resistor<->VCC
 
 
[pin1 of the bios chip] /CS<->Arduino pin10(SS, PORTB2)
 
[pin2 of the bios chip] DO<->Arduino pin12(MISO, PORTB4)
 
[pin3 of the bios chip] /WP<->VCC
 
[pin4 of the bios chip] GND<->GND on the power pins
 
 
Right pins of the BIOS chip:
 
--------------------------------------------------------
 
[pin8 of the bios chip] VCC<->+3.3V on the power pins of the Arduino
 
[pin7 of the bios chip] /HOLD<->VCC
 
[pin6 of the bios chip] CLK<->Arduino pin13(SCK, PORTB5)
 
[pin5 of the bios chip] DIO<->Arduino pin11(MOSI, PORTB3)
 
 
The Bios chip used is a W25X80.
 
The Arduino is an arduino uno.
 
  
== Pictures (With the 3.3V SPI levels) ==
+
[[File:P3v2_so16_spi.png]]
<div class="boilerplate" style="background-color: red; margin: 2em 0 0 0; padding: 0 10px 0 10px; border: 1px dotted #aaa;">'''WARNING''', I was told that by Simon Inns by mail: "The 3V3 fritzing example on the Wiki (the diagram of the breadboard) is quite wrong... The 3V3 output from the Uno is shorted to GND and the CLK and DI pins of the EEPROM are connected together after the 10K resistors.   Might be a good idea to fix it before you get "You broke my Uno" emails ;)"</div>
 
  
<gallery caption="Pictures " widths="250px" heights="250px" perrow="4">
+
== Gallery of some flashers ==
File:Serduino-v2_bb.jpg
+
<gallery caption="" widths="250px" heights="250px" perrow="4">
 
File:Serprogduino_v2.jpeg
 
File:Serprogduino_v2.jpeg
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
  
== Improved 3.3v version by Simon Inns (no issue anymore with laptop chips) ==
+
== Alternative: Shield with SPI and LPC/FWH for 5V Arduinos ==
 
<gallery widths="250px" heights="250px" perrow="4">
 
<gallery widths="250px" heights="250px" perrow="4">
File:Uno BIOS Flasher 2.png | [[File:Uno_BIOS_Flasher2_EagleCad.zip|Schematics]]
+
File:arduino_5V_lpc_spi_shield.jpg
 +
File:Arduino_lpcspi_shield_render.png
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
 +
[https://github.com/urjaman/frser-m328lpcspi Firmware and hardware sources]
 +
[https://oshpark.com/shared_projects/E6jwmbWy Shield PCB shared at oshpark]
  
== The Arduino and the software ==
+
* This shield and firmware was built for 5V ATMega328s with FTDI, variations to that will need adaptations in building the shield and/or in the firmware. The Uno R3 will work with the fast-usbserial U2 firmware.
=== Settings ===
+
* This shield uses a different pin for SPI CS than the other circuits on this page, and has LPC/FWH capability, thus different firmware. Frser-duino does have the code for using the CS like in this shield, but you need to modify spihw.h.
{| class="wikitable"  border="1"
+
* Note: do check for any incompatibilities between your arduino and the shield, eg. the PD7 used as LPC CLK clashes with BT reset in BT arduinos.
!git branch
+
* For LPC/FWH, current (16/02/01) flashrom trunk will be really slow, please use [https://github.com/urjaman/flashrom/tree/sp-upstream3 this branch] instead.
!Compatible Arduino version
 
!flashrom arguments
 
!Comments
 
|-
 
| master
 
|
 
* Arduino uno
 
| -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyACM0:2000000
 
|
 
* reliability issues (flashrom blocks waiting for data from the arduino indefinitely) with the code that is in the 8u2/16u2 beeing investigated...
 
|-
 
| master
 
|
 
* Arduino nano (3.3v)
 
| -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyUSB0:115200
 
|
 
* using the three wires serial '''and''' lowering the speed all problems disappear; the code has to be  changed to reflects the new speed (115200); to program the board use "avrdude -c arduino  -vv -P /dev/ttyUSB* -p atmega328p -b 57600 -U flash:w:serprog.hex"
 
|-
 
| ftdi
 
|
 
* Arduino Duemilanove
 
* Arduino uno with an external FTDI serial<->usb adapter or any other kind of adapter capable of 2000000 bps
 
| -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyUSB0:2000000
 
|
 
* Works flawlessly
 
* Very fast
 
|-
 
| leonardo
 
|
 
* Arduino Leonardo
 
|  -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyUSB0:2000000
 
|
 
* WARNING UNTESTED: No one tested that code yet.
 
* You will have to use the real serial ports of your arduino (ports 0 and 1 and ground), check the arduino documentation for getting the correct voltage, Get or use an USB<->Serial adapter with the same voltage and connect it to arduino's real serial port.
 
|-
 
|}
 
  
=== Performances ===
+
== Software and setup ==
  # time flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyACM0:2000000 -r coreboot.rom
+
 
  flashrom v0.9.5.2-r1541 on Linux 2.6.38-14-generic (x86_64)
+
The Arduino Uno R3 and other arduinos with an ATmega8U2/16U2 as an usb-serial converter
 +
have lots of bugs in their usb-serial firmware that prevent it from operating at more
 +
than a limited 115200 baud. The frser-duino firmware works around this by default
 +
if you use the appropriate make target, but there exists a firmware that allows
 +
these to be used like the FTDI at 2Mbaud: [https://github.com/urjaman/fast-usbserial fast-usbserial].
 +
 
 +
=== Setup ===
 +
==== Required software ====
 +
To make it work you need:
 +
* A recent flashrom with the serprog protocol compiled in (most packaged versions do)
 +
* [https://github.com/urjaman/frser-duino frser-duino which runs on the arduino]
 +
** This page used to link to [https://gitorious.org/gnutoo-personal-arduino-projects/serprog-duino serprog-duino], frser-duino should build in a similar fashion and has better serial buffering and some other features (spi speed setting).
 +
* The avr toolchain(avr-gcc, avr-libc,make etc...)
 +
 
 +
==== Building the software ====
 +
First get the firmware source:
 +
$ git clone --recursive git://github.com/urjaman/frser-duino
 +
$ cd frser-duino
 +
 
 +
Then build it:
 +
 
 +
For a board with a 8u2 or a 16u2:
 +
$ make u2 && make flash-u2
 +
 
 +
For a board with an ftdi:
 +
$ make ftdi && make flash-ftdi
 +
 
 +
==== Building for the Mega1280 or 2560 ====
 +
As above, except use the branch for the 1280:
 +
$ git clone --recursive git://github.com/urjaman/frser-duino -b arduino-mega-1280
 +
 
 +
For the Mega2560, change the Makefile to target the correct MCU (replace 1280 with 2560).
 +
Please also verify that the avrdude command is as expected for your device.
 +
 
 +
==== Running flashrom ====
 +
The right flashrom arguments are explained in the README.md, or here:
 +
Available targets:
 +
ftdi, flash-ftdi:
 +
  For the Arduinos with an FTDI
 +
  compatible flashrom arguments: flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyUSB0:2000000
 +
  Other boards using an hardware USB<->Serial converter might work too.
 +
u2, flash-u2:
 +
  For the Arduino with a 8u2 or a 16u2
 +
  compatible flashrom arguments: flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyACM0:115200
 +
 
 +
So for a board that has an ftdi that would give:
 +
flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyUSB0:2000000
 +
 
 +
==== Speed ====
 +
The speed is very dependant on the flash chip used:
 +
* Its capacity impacts the speed a lot, as you would expect.
 +
* The chip model as also a huge impact.
 +
 
 +
===== Duemillanove =====
 +
With the duemillanove:
 +
  # time flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyUSB0:2000000 -r duemillanove.rom    
 +
  flashrom v0.9.7-r1711 on Linux 3.18.3-gnu-1 (i686)
 
  flashrom is free software, get the source code at http://www.flashrom.org
 
  flashrom is free software, get the source code at http://www.flashrom.org
 
   
 
   
  Calibrating delay loop... OK.
+
  Calibrating delay loop... delay loop is unreliable, trying to continue OK.
 
  serprog: Programmer name is "serprog-duino"
 
  serprog: Programmer name is "serprog-duino"
  Found Winbond flash chip "W25X80" (1024 kB, SPI) on serprog.
+
  Found Winbond flash chip "W25Q32.V" (4096 kB, SPI) on serprog.
 
  Reading flash... done.
 
  Reading flash... done.
   
+
  flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyUSB0:2000000 -r duemillanove.rom
  real 0m16.602s
+
we have:
user 0m0.930s
+
  4.23s user 0.29s system 8% cpu 56.010 total
sys 0m0.000s
 
  
  # time flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyACM0:2000000 -w build/coreboot.rom
+
===== Uno =====
  flashrom v0.9.5.2-r1541 on Linux 2.6.38-14-generic (x86_64)
+
With the Arduino uno:
 +
  # flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyACM0:115200 -r uno.rom              
 +
  flashrom v0.9.7-r1711 on Linux 3.18.3-gnu-1 (i686)
 
  flashrom is free software, get the source code at http://www.flashrom.org
 
  flashrom is free software, get the source code at http://www.flashrom.org
 
   
 
   
  Calibrating delay loop... OK.
+
  Calibrating delay loop... delay loop is unreliable, trying to continue OK.
 
  serprog: Programmer name is "serprog-duino"
 
  serprog: Programmer name is "serprog-duino"
  Found Winbond flash chip "W25X80" (1024 kB, SPI) on serprog.
+
  Found Winbond flash chip "W25Q32.V" (4096 kB, SPI) on serprog.
  Reading old flash chip contents... done.
+
  Reading flash... done.
  Erasing and writing flash chip... Erase/write done.
+
  flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyACM0:115200 -r uno.rom
Verifying flash... VERIFIED.         
 
 
real 0m39.548s
 
user 0m2.650s
 
sys 0m0.000s
 
  
=== Required software ===
+
we have:
To make it work you need:
+
  4.77s user 0.65s system 1% cpu 6:02.43 total
* flashrom from svn
 
* [https://gitorious.org/gnutoo-personal-arduino-projects/serprog-duino serprog-duino which runs on the arduino]
 
* The avr toolchain(avr-gcc, avr-libc,make etc...)
 
=== Building the software ===
 
  $ svn co svn://flashrom.org/flashrom/trunk flashrom
 
$ cd flashrom && make
 
$ cd ../
 
$ git clone git://gitorious.org/gnutoo-personal-arduino-projects/serprog-duino.git
 
$ cd serprog-duino && make && make upload
 
  
=== Running flashrom ===
+
==== Tested chips ====
./flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyACM0:2000000
 
 
 
=== Chips ===
 
 
* SST25VF016B => huge issues, not recognized by the 3.3v version, had to use the 5v version which is over maximum allowed voltage, also had to lower the serial speed to 115200, ultra slow to write(seem related to the chip itself, since that with the openmoko programmer it's even slower...)...
 
* SST25VF016B => huge issues, not recognized by the 3.3v version, had to use the 5v version which is over maximum allowed voltage, also had to lower the serial speed to 115200, ultra slow to write(seem related to the chip itself, since that with the openmoko programmer it's even slower...)...
 
* W25X80 works well in 3.3v mode(5v works also but it's highly not advised to use 5v)
 
* W25X80 works well in 3.3v mode(5v works also but it's highly not advised to use 5v)
 
=== Advantages and disadvantages ===
 
* <s>The speed isn't that great(about 3 minutes for reading+writing+verifying a 1M chip)</s>
 
* The speed is now much better thanks to a patch by Sebastian Parborg.
 
* it is made of very commonly available parts(if you can find an arduino uno, you will be able to build it).
 
* <s>Voltage issues( SPI levels are at 5v, it's problematic for flashing 3.3v chips...)</s>
 
 
=== TODO ===
 
* <s>Find a way to lower the voltage to 3.3v</s>
 
* Fix the arduino UNO speed and reliability issues
 

Latest revision as of 16:15, 27 July 2016

WARNING, make sure that the Arduino SPI voltages and the flash chip voltages matches: Without any extra resistors or level shifter, the Arduino Uno and Duemillanove SPI pins are at 5V, while most chips operate at 3.3v.

Hardware basics

You'll need to have:

  • a supported Arduino, these are
    • any based on the ATmega328 (/168/88 will work with small changes too), like the Arduino Uno R3.
    • Arduino Mega or Mega2560, but notice that the software has a different branch for them.
  • a way to convert the 5V logic levels to 3.3V (except if 3.3V arduino, these are rarer)
  • a 3.3V SPI flash chip that is supported by flashrom

Notes:

  • The FTDI based usb-serial converters are the fastest.
  • 1.8V conversion isnt covered here, yet.

There are some simple schematics included here (source). The idea is that you pick one version from each part 1 through 3, and connect the pin/net names.

Part 1: The Arduino

ATmega328 based ones:

P1v1 arduino328.png

For the Arduino Megas:

P1v2 arduino1280.png

Part 2: Level translation

There are a few options here, ranging from the simple resistors (v1) to a buffer chip (v3).

One thing to remember about the resistor dividers is that they're not strong enough to do ISP.

Here's the simple resistors:

P2v1 resdivider.png

The part count for the resistor divider is 6 resistors of 2 types or 9 of one type.

Here's one with 5 resistors, the downside is that you'll need to modify the firmware a little:

P2v2 oc cs.png

The 3rd version is using the DIP16 HEF4050 buffer chip:

P2v3 buffer4050.png

Part 3: The SPI Flash chip

The DIL-8 and SOIC-8 versions connect like this:

P3v1 dil8 so8 spi.png

For the SMD SOIC-16 chips the pinout is:

P3v2 so16 spi.png

Gallery of some flashers

Alternative: Shield with SPI and LPC/FWH for 5V Arduinos

Firmware and hardware sources Shield PCB shared at oshpark

  • This shield and firmware was built for 5V ATMega328s with FTDI, variations to that will need adaptations in building the shield and/or in the firmware. The Uno R3 will work with the fast-usbserial U2 firmware.
  • This shield uses a different pin for SPI CS than the other circuits on this page, and has LPC/FWH capability, thus different firmware. Frser-duino does have the code for using the CS like in this shield, but you need to modify spihw.h.
  • Note: do check for any incompatibilities between your arduino and the shield, eg. the PD7 used as LPC CLK clashes with BT reset in BT arduinos.
  • For LPC/FWH, current (16/02/01) flashrom trunk will be really slow, please use this branch instead.

Software and setup

The Arduino Uno R3 and other arduinos with an ATmega8U2/16U2 as an usb-serial converter have lots of bugs in their usb-serial firmware that prevent it from operating at more than a limited 115200 baud. The frser-duino firmware works around this by default if you use the appropriate make target, but there exists a firmware that allows these to be used like the FTDI at 2Mbaud: fast-usbserial.

Setup

Required software

To make it work you need:

  • A recent flashrom with the serprog protocol compiled in (most packaged versions do)
  • frser-duino which runs on the arduino
    • This page used to link to serprog-duino, frser-duino should build in a similar fashion and has better serial buffering and some other features (spi speed setting).
  • The avr toolchain(avr-gcc, avr-libc,make etc...)

Building the software

First get the firmware source:

$ git clone --recursive git://github.com/urjaman/frser-duino
$ cd frser-duino

Then build it:

For a board with a 8u2 or a 16u2:

$ make u2 && make flash-u2

For a board with an ftdi:

$ make ftdi && make flash-ftdi

Building for the Mega1280 or 2560

As above, except use the branch for the 1280:

$ git clone --recursive git://github.com/urjaman/frser-duino -b arduino-mega-1280

For the Mega2560, change the Makefile to target the correct MCU (replace 1280 with 2560). Please also verify that the avrdude command is as expected for your device.

Running flashrom

The right flashrom arguments are explained in the README.md, or here:

Available targets:
ftdi, flash-ftdi:
  For the Arduinos with an FTDI
  compatible flashrom arguments: flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyUSB0:2000000
  Other boards using an hardware USB<->Serial converter might work too.
u2, flash-u2:
  For the Arduino with a 8u2 or a 16u2
  compatible flashrom arguments: flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyACM0:115200

So for a board that has an ftdi that would give:

flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyUSB0:2000000

Speed

The speed is very dependant on the flash chip used:

  • Its capacity impacts the speed a lot, as you would expect.
  • The chip model as also a huge impact.
Duemillanove

With the duemillanove:

# time flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyUSB0:2000000 -r duemillanove.rom      
flashrom v0.9.7-r1711 on Linux 3.18.3-gnu-1 (i686)
flashrom is free software, get the source code at http://www.flashrom.org

Calibrating delay loop... delay loop is unreliable, trying to continue OK.
serprog: Programmer name is "serprog-duino"
Found Winbond flash chip "W25Q32.V" (4096 kB, SPI) on serprog.
Reading flash... done.
flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyUSB0:2000000 -r duemillanove.rom

we have:

4.23s user 0.29s system 8% cpu 56.010 total
Uno

With the Arduino uno:

# flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyACM0:115200 -r uno.rom                
flashrom v0.9.7-r1711 on Linux 3.18.3-gnu-1 (i686)
flashrom is free software, get the source code at http://www.flashrom.org

Calibrating delay loop... delay loop is unreliable, trying to continue OK.
serprog: Programmer name is "serprog-duino"
Found Winbond flash chip "W25Q32.V" (4096 kB, SPI) on serprog.
Reading flash... done.
flashrom -p serprog:dev=/dev/ttyACM0:115200 -r uno.rom

we have:

4.77s user 0.65s system 1% cpu 6:02.43 total

Tested chips

  • SST25VF016B => huge issues, not recognized by the 3.3v version, had to use the 5v version which is over maximum allowed voltage, also had to lower the serial speed to 115200, ultra slow to write(seem related to the chip itself, since that with the openmoko programmer it's even slower...)...
  • W25X80 works well in 3.3v mode(5v works also but it's highly not advised to use 5v)